How Will the Cloud Affect My Career as an IT Professional?

Well, after a year’s hiatus due to some particularly difficult personal trials, I’ve decided to come back to the block and weigh in on one of the big hot-button subjects in the IT industry – How the cloud will affect the job market.

The Push to Cloud

In the modern world, as the Internet has developed and increased in prominence in our lives, the increased infrastructure, security technology, and bandwidth is beginning to allow businesses and individuals to forgo the traditional need to pay big bucks for things like processing power and storage. Companies have been moving their critical systems into third party data-centers for years, but with the development of entirely cloud based solutions like Office 365, Azure, Google Apps, and AWS we’re starting to see a large industry push to reduce infrastructure costs by moving away from self-managed IT solutions. So now we’re starting to see another paradigm shift in the IT industry.

Now, this is not to say that IT hasn’t seen any kind of paradigm shift before, quite the contrary. It seems like every year we’re having to face some new technology that is permeating the industry. From the introduction of Ethernet, to wireless networking, to virtualization and VDI, most of us have dealt with the changes as they’ve come, learning new techniques and adjusting the way we work. But the push to cloud has a lot of IT personnel worried about their jobs.

What About my Job!?

Cost savings has been the primary driver behind the recent push to adopt cloud services. Executives around the world are salivating at the possibility of reducing their costs by shifting the responsibility of IT infrastructure management onto third parties. This shifting of responsibility has a lot of IT people on edge, knowing that if the stuff they do every day is outsourced to a third party service provider, what will happen to their job? If we have no servers or networks to maintain, am I going to lose my job?

The answer here is actually pretty simple. Unless you’re a part of some specific niche industry jobs, you’re pretty likely to keep your job.

Working IT in the Age of the Cloud

While moving to the cloud does reduce the need for critical infrastructure and complex solutions, it doesn’t really reduce the need for administration, problem solving, end-user support, and technical know-how. After performing numerous migrations from various email systems to Office 365, the one thing I’ve discovered is that moving to the cloud doesn’t really make the IT guy’s job any easier. In many ways, it actually makes things more difficult and complex, which means that if you’re a competent IT professional your job is pretty safe.

How will the Cloud Change My Job?

Now, that isn’t to say that your job isn’t going to change. Moving to the cloud requires a good deal of adaptation and adjustment to new ways of thinking and managing resources. For instance, if you want to have any kind of Active Directory integration with Office 365, you’re going to have to use Dirsync, and using Dirsync means you can’t modify things like distribution groups, user accounts, and passwords in Office 365. These things have to be managed in Active Directory, and that means that all of those really menial tasks you’ve been handing off to department heads, like adding distribution group members, are going to land right back into your wheelhouse if you’re as nervous as I am about giving people with no IT experience access to the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. For things like password changes, be prepared to face a massive influx of support calls asking for help resetting passwords as well.

In addition to the technical limitations involved with moving to the cloud, you also have to deal with the fact that you lose a lot of direct control over the IT infrastructure. Since your resources are now located on a system owned and operated by someone else, if things break you have to go to the vendor to get it fixed, and that brings up any number of frustrations, depending on who you work with. If you’ve ever spent any time on the phone with Microsoft Support, you’re likely to dread any interaction with them from that point on. You won’t have to do much of the work involved in fixing the problem, but you will have to sit around twiddling your thumbs while someone else does, and that can be a little maddening at times. This does, of course, depend on how competent the person on the other end of the phone is. Sometimes you get lucky and find someone who knows their stuff. Sadly, that’s more of an exception than a rule, so you may need to brush up on your people skills a bit and learn how to light a fire under the support technician on the phone with you.

One Step Forward, Two Steps Back

As more services start moving to the cloud, we’ll probably see a reduction of administrative overhead, but for now cloud solutions will feel like a major step backward to a lot of people, and it really is a step backward. You see, in the old days, most businesses that made investments in IT infrastructure would utilize systems called Mainframes. The mainframe system would perform all of the actual processing work (and was as big as a house in some cases), and people who used computers would interface with the mainframe from a system that was directly connected to it. Sound a lot like a Virtual Desktop Environment? It’s a lot like how cloud services work, too, except that with the Cloud, we replace the centralized Mainframe system with a vast, globe spanning collection of servers. It’d be like if one company owned a single mainframe that was rented out for numerous companies to use at once. As a result, we have to rethink the way we work. Luckily, this does mean fewer trips to the data-center to reboot servers or move cables around, which is a major plus for some people (not me, though. Data-centers relax me for some reason. I’m not sure if it’s the steady humming sound or 50 degree temperatures).

Niche Workers Beware!

With all of this said, there are a couple jobs that are going to start disappearing in the next few years. If you happen to work entirely in one of these areas, you should seriously consider branching out or you may soon find yourself without a reason to work.

1. Backup Operations – This is one niche where the writing has been on the wall for a while now. Companies have been moving toward high-availability solutions for some time now, which means that the need to spend copious funds on backup solutions and storage has been falling. High availability solutions generally rely on having multiple copies of critical data on multiple servers, so the loss of a single server no longer puts people into panic mode. With the cloud, data is placed in systems with so much redundancy, with such a high level of integrity, that data loss is extremely uncommon, and unrecoverable data loss is nearly impossible for some cloud solutions. So if you’re a backup operator and that’s all you’ve done for years, you might find your job under the cross-hairs. It’s time to start expanding your repertoire.

2. Hardware maintenance – To me, it should be obvious that computer hardware specialists are going to see less work with the move to cloud, since there is a definite drop in the amount of server and network hardware required when your company is running there, but I figured I should at least mention it.

3. Internal Network Administration – This particular job won’t ever go away, but with cloud solutions we may see a definite drop in the complexity and overhead required for running a LAN, and the concept of the WAN may begin to disappear as satellite offices will only require an Internet connection to access company resources located in the Cloud.

4. IT Infrastructure Design Specialists – Since the cloud consists almost entirely of prepackaged solutions, the demand for complex architectural designs will start to disappear, meaning that people who make their living designing and implementing IT infrastructure solutions are going to have a lot less work to do. This is the one that makes me sad, since I really enjoy Infrastructure Design. As the cloud push progresses, Infrastructure design will change from designing solutions to developing solutions for managing and interfacing with cloud-based services (which is not nearly as much fun).

5. SAN management – The concept of the Storage Area Network isn’t really even into adolescence yet and here we’re moving away from it? Well, yes, pretty much. As the cloud sees greater levels of adoption, the need for people who focus on the management, provisioning, and optimization of centralized data storage are probably going to see less work.

Now, I’m not saying that these niche jobs will disappear entirely. Nor is this a comprehensive list of jobs that the cloud will be making less important. There will always be companies who avoid the Cloud like the plague, and they’re going to need people who know their stuff. But what I will say is that if you focus in these areas alone, be prepared to branch out or you’re probably going to start spending your days working for a cloud service provider like Microsoft, which might not be as much fun as working for a (much) smaller company.

Adapt or Die

In the end, the cloud will simply force IT professionals to do what most of us do best, adapt to changes in our surroundings. We’ll need to change the way we think and interact in our jobs to be successful in our careers, but we should still have careers despite the changes to the IT landscape.

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Office 365, ADFS, and SQL

He’s an issue I’ve just run into that there doesn’t seem to be a good answer to on the Internet. When you are building a highly available ADFS farm to enable Single Sign On for Office 365, should you use the Windows Integrated Database (WID) that comes with Windows Server or store the ADFS Configuration on a SQL server? Put simply, if you are using ADFS *only* for Office 365, there is no need to use SQL server for storing the configuration database. Here’s why.

What Does ADFS with SQL Get You?

I spent a good day or so trying to answer this question because I came in after the initial configuration of a Hybrid Exchange migration to Office 365 that was set up using SQL to store ADFS. When we went to test failover, we ran into a *mess* of problems with this configuration. So I’m going to try to explain things in a way that makes sense, rather than just telling you what Technet says in their article on the subject.

Storing your ADFS configuration in a SQL database gives you 4 things:

  1. The ability to detect and block SAML and WS-Federation Token Replay attempts.
  2. The ability to use SAML artifact resolution
  3. The ability to use SQL fail-over to increase availability of the Configuration database
  4. Scalability!!!

Using WID with ADFS prevents these features from being available to you. Here’s what each of those lines of text mean (Why no, I’m not going to just give you that without definitions like Technet does. Can you tell I’m a little grumpy about Technet’s coverage of this subject?)

SAML and WS-Federation Token Replay Attempts

This is actually a potential security vulnerability that comes about because of how Token authentication mechanisms work. In some cases, an application that accepts a federated token identity for access may allow users to “replay” a previously issued authentication Token to bypass the authentication mechanisms used to issue that Token. You can do this by ending a session with a federated application, then returning to the application with a cached version of the interaction. The easiest way to do this is to just push the Back button in a web browser. If the federated application isn’t properly designed, it will accept the cached version of the token used in the previous session and continue operating just like someone never logged out.

It should be noted that this is a serious security issue. If you have an environment where there are systems exposed to public use by multiple users (Kiosks, for example), you will want to make sure that Token Replay attempts are dropped. But here’s the thing, Token Replay is a vulnerability that affects the application you are using federated login to access. It is not a vulnerability of ADFS itself. Basically, if the applications that you are using ADFS to federate with are designed properly, there is no need to have your ADFS environment provide this kind of protection. Office 365 was designed to prevent Token Replay attempts from succeeding. So if you are only federating with Office 365, you don’t need to have this functionality in your ADFS environment. So, no need to have a SQL based Configuration Database for this reason.

SAML Artifact Resolution

I have tried for a while to find a good definition for what SAML Artifact Resolution actually is. I’m still not 100% on it, because the technical documentation for the SAML 2.0 standard is about as informative as a block of graphite. However, it seems like this is essentially a method through which both sides of a SAML token exchange can check on and authenticate one another using a single session, rather than multiple sessions. This comes in handy for situations where load balancing is in use and the application requests verification of the token provider.

The good news is that you don’t have to understand SAML Artifact Resolution. Office 365 doesn’t use it, so you don’t have to worry about having it. No SQL required for this purpose.

SQL Failover Capabilities

At first glance, having SQL server failover capabilities for your ADFS configuration database sounds like a great idea. I mean, SQL server has great failover capabilities built in. The problem is, so does ADFS. When you use WID for your ADFS Configuration database, the first server in the Farm will store a read/write enabled copy of the configuration database. Each additional ADFS server added to the farm will pull a copy of this database and store it in a read only format. So in a WID based ADFS farm, every ADFS server in the farm has a copy of the configuration database by default. ADFS Proxy servers don’t store or need access to the configuration database, so only the backend ADFS servers will benefit at all from SQL integration.

But here’s the thing, for SQL integration to work properly in a way that allows full SQL failover capabilities, you need to have a valid SQL cluster. With SQL 2008R2 and earlier, this means that you have to have at minimum 2 SQL servers installed on a version of Windows that has Cluster Services available. Cluster services requires that you have shared storage before it will create a failover cluster for SQL versions prior to 2012. If you have 2012, you can manage much simpler failover, but if you’re limited to SQL 2008R2 and earlier, you’re going to end up with a significantly higher infrastructure requirement to get SQL failover working. It you can use SQL 2012 to store the ADFS database, there is some advantage to using SQL clustering for ADFS, but the advantage doesn’t actually justify the costs of doing so.

“What about SQL Mirroring?” You ask. Well, that’s a good idea in theory. You can have your ADFS config database mirrored on two SQL servers, but you will run into some major headaches using this technique, especially if you ever need to run a failover. First off, ADFS configuration with SQL server requires that you use the SFConfig command line tool to create the config database and add servers to the farm. This is a huge pain to do, but it’s necessary. Second, if you ever have to fail over to the other SQL server for any reason, you have to reconfigure every one of the servers in the farm. SQL mirroring doesn’t utilize a clustered VIP, so the configuration with SFConfig requires you to point the server to the active SQL server. When you activate the SQL database on the other server, things may or may not work without reconfiguration. If they do work, there’s a chance that they might *stop* working at any time in the future without notice until you run SFConfig on each member of the farm and use the now active mirror’s address in the command. Then you may have to log in to each of your Proxy servers and run the Proxy Config wizard to reinitialize the proxy trust between it and the ADFS farm. That means that if you want to fail over with SQL mirroring, you have to log in to 4 servers at minimum and reconfigure each one every time the active SQL mirror changes. This is a truly unwieldy and excessive failover process. It isn’t worth the loss of expense from not using a full SQL cluster to do this for ADFS’s configuration database.

The failover abilities of SQL allow you to have constantly available access to a writable copy of the ADFS configuration database. If you use WID and the first server in the farm goes down, you cannot make changes to your ADFS configuration. No adding new servers, no modifications to the ADFS functions, etc. The good news is that the only time you need access to a writable copy of the database is when you are adding new servers to the farm or making modifications to ADFS functions. If you’re using Office 365, you almost never have to make changes to either of these once its set up and running. ADFS will continue operating as long as even one server in the farm is accessible without a writable copy of the database. So realistically, you don’t need SQL failover capabilities for ADFS’s configuration database.

Scalability!!!

Scalability is one of my favorite buzz words. Scalability means “I can add more servers to handle this workload without any problems.” And SQL allows you to do that. However, WID integrated ADFS allows you to do so as well. The limitation, though, is that you can only have up to 5 servers in a WID based ADFS farm (NOTE: Proxy servers don’t count against this maximum number). “Only five servers!?” you may ask in heated exasperation. “Yes!” I answer. “Well, I can’t stand limitations! I will use SQL!” you respond. “You will never need more than 4 ADFS servers in ever!” I retort. ADFS is one of the most light-weight roles available for Windows server. I have deployed ADFS on numerous environments with user counts well past the 10,000 mark and the ADFS servers almost never measure a blip on the performance monitors. This is because ADFS does three things, it provides a website for users to log in to, it queries Active Directory to authenticate users, and it generates a small token that contains less than 1KB of data that it then sends to a remote service. This entire process requires about 10 seconds per user per session, and that includes about 9 seconds of someone typing in their credentials. So there isn’t really even much need to have load balancing capabilities on ADFS. One server can handle monstrous loads. If you have an environment with 100,000 users accessing numerous federated applications, you might need to add 1 or 2 extra servers to your farm to handle the load, but I doubt it. You’re better off just adding RAM and processing power to your ADFS servers to improve performance than adding extra servers to the farm.

If you want multi-site high availability, you may need 5 servers, but probably not more. Let’s say you want to have site resiliency in your ADFS configuration as well as failover capability in your primary and secondary site. This configuration requires a minimum of 4 ADFS servers. Two for the primary site, two for the failover site, and 4 proxy servers that don’t count against the maximum of 5 servers. There you have it, full site-resiliency and in-site failover capability using less than 5 servers. You can even add a third site to the farm without having any issues if you want using the remaining server. But let’s be honest here, if there is an emergency that takes down two geographically dispersed datacenters at the same time, you’re going to be looking for the nearest shotgun to fight off zombies/anarchist bandits, not checking to make sure your ADFS farm is still working, so triple hot-site resiliency for ADFS is probably more than anyone needs. So you don’t need SQL for ADFS if you want scalability. It’s scalable enough without SQL.

EXPLOSIONS! I mean Conclusions

If you are planning to build an ADFS farm for Single Sign On with Office 365, you will ask the question, “Do I need SQL?” The answer to that question, in pretty much every possible case is “Not if you’re just going to use it for Office 365.” SQL integrated ADFS configurations add some features, sure, but there is almost no situation where any of those features must exist for ADFS to work with Office 365. So don’t bother even trying it out. It adds an unnecessary level of complexity, cost, and management difficulties and give no advantages whatsoever.

Should I Switch to Office 365? A Frank Examination

The Cloud – An Explanation

As time moves on, technology moves with it, and times they are a’changin’! There have been many drastic changes in the world of IT over the years, but the most recent change, the move toward cloud computing, is probably one of the most drastic and industry redefining change to occur since the release of HTTP in the early 1990s.

Cloud computing is, put simply, placing your IT infrastructure into the hands of a third party, and it’s becoming big news for companies like Microsoft, Amazon, and Apple, who are working hard to push the IT world into the Cloud so they can take advantage of the recurring income model that their Cloud systems are built around.

A more complex explanation of Cloud Computing almost always requires a metaphor or analogy of some kind, so here’s mine; Cake. I love cake. Everyone loves cake. If you don’t love cake, you’re crazy and you should give your cake to me. But there is a problem with cake. If you live alone, you can never really have cake, because in order to have cake you usually have to buy or make a whole cake, and if you have a whole cake to yourself, you will very quickly regret having purchased a whole cake for yourself as you roll yourself out of bed and out the door each morning on your gigantic rolls of fat. Then you’ll have a heart attack. Cake is meant to be shared. One cake is enough to allow 12 people (or more, or less, depending on how much they love cake) to have a comfortable amount of cake. This is good for everyone because they all get cake and aren’t fat because of it. So, how is the Cloud like cake? Well, now that computing technology has advanced to the point where almost every computer system provides more power than is necessary for most tasks in the corporate environment, buying and building a complex IT infrastructure that meets all the needs of a specific company can be extremely expensive, and it’s highly likely that much of that infrastructure is going to be wasted because it is more than is needed.

Virtualization was the first step to addressing the concerns of excessive computing power. It allowed IT departments to combine multiple server roles, securely segregated, on a single physical server. Prior to the advent of Virtualization, secure segregation of server roles required numerous physical servers, which in turn required a lot of space, power, and resources to maintain. Virtualization started shrinking the corporate Datacenters of the world, and the concept of Cloud computing seeks primarily to not only shrink the corporate datacenter, but to centralize it

Cloud computing, like a giant cake, allows multiple corporate environments to share a single, gigantic infrastructure system. Rather than each company having their own segregated and wholly owned infrastructure that is managed, configured, and maintained separately, Cloud solutions like Office 365 seek to provide all the services of a highly integrated and functional environment without requiring a fully dedicated infrastructure for each company that needs or wants that type of functionality. This is accomplished through the use of highly customized versions of products that are normally available to individual corporations for a one time investment in a packaged, much smaller recurring fee system. The cloud provider builds, maintains, and supports the Infrastructure and the cloud user makes use of the system just like it was owned by them. In the case of Office 365, every individual or company that uses the solution is effectively lumped into the same infrastructure system and uses the portion of that system that they need, rather than using a portion of their own system and wasting the portion they don’t use. This is handy because one of the worst things in the world is stale cake. I mean unused IT resources.

Getting to it – What Does Office 365 Offer

Office 365, being Microsoft’s Cloud solutions environment, provides most of the IT services that companies depend on Microsoft for. Specifically, Email and Calendaring (Through Exchange), Collaboration (Through Sharepoint and Exchange), Instant Messaging (Through Lync), and centralized file management and storage through OneDrive (Formally SkyDrive, formally something else. Microsoft changes the names of stuff every week it seems, so we’ll just call this cloud storage). If you wanted to compare the Infrastructure requirements you would need to meet what Office 365 provides for its monthly per-user fee (or a la cart if you don’t want all the services together) you would need the following things in your environment:

Exchange Online:

  • At minimum 3 Exchange 2013 servers configured with DAG
  • A hardware load balancer
  • A high-speed Fiber-channel SAN with about 55GB of storage per user (For normal Mailboxes) and an additional 5GB for each resource mailbox (Rooms, equipment, shared calendars, etc.).
  • An infinitely expanding low speed SAN (For archive mailboxes, for E3 licenses and above)
  • A secure email delivery solution to provide email stubbing (for E3 licenses and above)
  • Spam filtering services or a spam appliance

Sharepoint Online:

  • At minimum 2 Sharepoint 2013 Servers
  • Additional high-speed Fiber-Channel space, up to 50GB per user (again…this is space for OneDrive/SkyDrive/whatever they call it next)
  • More Load Balancing

Lync Online:

  • At minimum 3 Lync 2013 servers

Generic Software Infrastructure

  • Several Windows 2008/2012 Licenses
  • Active Directory (2 DCs minimum)
  • Multi-Tiered SAN infrastructure (with multi-site geo-replication capabilities)
  • A Load Balancer
  • Highly secured Firewalls

Software

  • Office Professional Plus license for each user

Physical Requirements

  • Multiple Physical locations spread across numerous geographical regions.
  • Each Physical Location should have Concrete security walls, entry barriers, full time security staff, man-traps, and multi-factor authentication before admittance

And that’s just for basic service. You would also need several employees dedicated to maintaining the infrastructure and supporting the environment, since it is very difficult to find individual IT personnel who have the skill set or mental constitution necessary to manage such an environment.

In other words, if you were to build the infrastructure necessary to provide the same functionality and level of service available with Office 365, you would need to spend several hundred thousand dollars in hardware, software, and manpower. This also does not take into account Architecting and development costs for setting up the environment, which is typically done by third party companies or contractors.

Normally, individual companies would need to spend this kind of money every time they upgrade their infrastructure to keep up with new features and changes in technology. But with Office 365, upgrades, patching and new services/features are released regularly, with no need to manage a patching system. All in all, using Office 365 can represent a significant cost savings for companies that need high availability, accessibility, scalability, and security in their IT infrastructure.

Why Wouldn’t I Use Office 365

If it costs a whole lot less and provides a lot of great features, why would you not want to use Office 365? The answer here is that cloud solutions are designed to meet the needs of the average environment, not every environment. As the cloud begins to mature (it’s really just an infant right now, so don’t be surprised if it tosses Cheerios across the room every now and then) it will become much more customizable, but for now, there is very little customization that can happen with Office 365. For instance, any Line of Business application you have in your environment that must me installed on an Exchange Server is not usable. Many software providers that require this type of functionality are moving their focus to cloud based solutions now, but things like Blackberry Enterprise Server will not work with Office 365. As I mentioned, most companies are building systems that integrate with Office 365, for instance Research in Motion has teamed with Microsoft to build in support for BES features into Office 365. This support has to be activated, though. But there are several things that simply can’t be done with Office 365. I’ll try to provide some of the limitations here. For a more detailed explanation of what Office 365 *can* do, check out the official service descriptions available from Microsoft.


  1. Microsoft limits email restorations to 14 days. If an email is deleted from a Mailbox, the Deleted Items folder, and then purged from the hidden recoverable items folder, you will only have the ability to recover that email for 14 days after being fully purged. Within the 14 day window, a support request to Microsoft is required to recover the email. Outside that Window, there is no possible way to recover it. I should mention that this is a technical limitation of the Exchange Online service. Exchange Online utilizes a 14 day lagged, 3+ copy DAG configuration. This configuration allows Microsoft to use Circular Logging on their databases to reduce resource usage, and allows an extremely high level of availability. However, the maximum amount of time that any DAG member can be lagged is 14 days. Once a full email purge is fully committed to the lagged database copy, there is no way to recover it.
  2. Office 365 does not allow unauthenticated email relaying. In order to send email to Office 365, you *must* authenticate with a licensed user account. If you have Line of Business applications or equipment that doesn’t support unauthenticated email, consider upgrading your version to one that supports authenticated relaying. If this is not possible, it is necessary to utilize an SMTP server in your network that supports unauthenticated relay, such as PostFix or the IIS based SMTP server that is included with Windows Server.
  3. Exchange Online has strict limits on the amount of email that each mailbox can send. This is to prevent spamming from Office 365’s mail servers and reduce resource overhead. Each mailbox is allowed to send to at most 10,000 recipients per day (a recipient is considered to be a single email address listed in the To:, CC:, or BCC: fields of an email, so a distribution list can be used to count as a single recipient). In addition, each email can be sent to up to 500 recipients and each mailbox can only send up to 30 messages per minute. Microsoft will not increase these limits even if you ask. If you have a business need to exceed these limitations, consider using a cloud based mass-emailing service like MailChimp.
  4. Many of the administrative capabilities and controls that are available with an On-Premise Exchange, SharePoint, or Lync environment are not exposed to Office 365 tenant administrators. If there is a control that you would like to enable or use and you can’t find it in the Admin Portal, you may be able to do it in the Remote Powershell sessions provided by Microsoft. Even with Powershell, there is only so much you can do. There are 4 different Modules for Managing Office 365 in Powershell, Exchange Online (with some additional things), Lync Online, Windows Azure AD, and SharePoint Online. As a general rule, though, administrative settings that control server level or organizational level functions will not be available to you. If you have a business need to change a high level configuration, you must prepare and submit a Support Request to Microsoft through the Office 365 Admin Portal. This is a fairly simple process, but support requests can take a significant amount of time to complete, so be prepared to wait for your changes to apply.
  5. If it breaks, there’s nothing you can do to fix it in most situations. Unless you are using ADFS and Dirsync in your environment, bringing Office 365 services back online if something fails is completely out of your wheelhouse. If you do use ADFS or Dirsync, the only thing you can really troubleshoot and fix is Active Directory Object syncing or Login issues. Everything else false under Microsoft’s SLAs and is their responsibility to fix. Microsoft guarantees a minimum service up-time of 99.9% (or 43 minutes acceptable downtime per month). The SLA documents provide exact details on service credits granted for falling below that level, but if your IT management has decided that a higher level of up-time is required, Office 365 may not be a good solution for your environment.

There are a number of other limitations to Office 365’s service, so many, in fact, that it would be difficult to outline them all with a small book. Because of that, Microsoft (and I) typically recommend a short Proof of Concept (PoC) period before migrating to the service. A PoC will highlight errors in your system configuration that will negatively impact interoperability with Office 365 and make sure that your environment and business needs can be completely met with Office 365.

I Work in IT – How Will This Impact My Job

One of the greatest causes of push-back from moving to the Cloud comes from IT staff. Most IT people are justifiably twitchy when it comes to keeping their jobs. There are a lot of people competing for IT jobs and one of the major selling points of Cloud Services is decreased employment costs. Add that to the fact that the first group to get targeted for layoffs during a recession is the IT department and questions about how this will impact IT workers becomes a greatly valid question. The truth is that while movements to the cloud will decrease the need for dedicated IT staff in most companies, it also increases the need for IT staff at datacenters and consulting firms. Skilled IT people are in short supply, so keeping up with the technology trends and times is very important. Learning about the cloud and understanding it will keep you from being unemployed for extended periods (I speak from experience on this, I promise).

That said, large environments that maintain IT staff will still need to keep a significant portion of their IT workers even if they move to the cloud. Microsoft and other cloud solutions do not provide End User Support so there will always be a need for Help Desk and on-site support staff. In addition, companies that migrate to the cloud will continue to need IT staff that can interface with Cloud Services Support Staff. A single support request with Microsoft should convince most of the difficulty that exists in managing support requests and maintaining lines of communication during outages and system failures. There will also still be a need for Systems and Network Administrators (In fact, with Cloud services Network Administrators may be in even higher demand as Internet Connection Up-time becomes more important). In all reality, on-site IT staff will still be very necessary, but the nature of the job will begin to change as more cloud services become available. Instead of fighting fires and panicking about system failures and inefficiencies, IT staff can focus on developing processes and making non-cloud based services work better. Cloud services make the typical IT employee’s job easier, not less necessary.

What is Available in the Cloud Besides Office 365

The primary principal of Cloud Computing is that the equipment that runs your infrastructure no longer exists in your physical locations. There are a lot of ways this is accomplished. Terms like Private Cloud are bandied about by Marketing teams with wild abandon without a really concrete definition. Ask three different salesmen what a Private Cloud is and you’ll probably get three completely different answers (Or some really blank stares. Salesmen. *eyeroll* Am I right?). But essentially, you’re in the cloud if you have to have a Public Internet connection to reach your resources. If you have a dedicated MPLS-like connection to a datacenter and someone else manages, maintains, and updates those systems for you, this is not operating in the Cloud. Some people will call this a Private Cloud, but the real term used to define this type of relationship is Managed Services (since that’s what that kind of relationship was called well before the term Private Cloud was coined).

At any rate, cloud services can range from Solutions like Office 365 and Google Apps for Business to things like Drop-Box and Imgur. For IT purposes, some additional services that may be useful include Microsoft’s Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Azure solution. Azure allows you to create entirely cloud based Virtual Machines in Microsoft’s datacenters that can be acessed from anywhere. Amazon’s AWS provides a number of services for Web Based businesses to perform necessary functions. Google’s Apps for Business provides similar functionality to Office 365 but with (in my opinion) less polish.

Other Considerations

Migrating to the cloud is a difficult decision to make. There are pros and cons just like any other business decision. Take some time to understand what is involved in moving to the cloud and make sure to plan for life after moving if you decide to do so. One of the best recommendations I can make for people considering a move like this is to contact a company that specializes in cloud services (Like Business and Decision North America, the company I work for. How’s that for shameless plugs?). Aside from being able to explain things in greater detail and help plan for moving to the cloud, using a Microsoft Partner to assist in your move will open up options for quick escalations and better communication with Microsoft’s Support teams in the event of problems. Companies that do not have a partner to assist them must deal with Microsoft’s Office 365 support teams themselves, and this can take up to 2 days to receive the first response , depending on their workload and day of the week (never make a support case at 4PM on Friday. Just a friendly tip). If you work with a Microsoft Partner, this response time can be decreased to the amount of time it takes for someone in Redmond to get their butt kicked (metaphorically speaking). All in all, the world is just now beginning to move into the cloud, so now is the time to begin preparing for the inevitable.

Office 365 Hybrid Configuration Failures

This is just a quick post that is meant to help people out who are having some issues with creating a Hybrid Configuration with Office 365 and Exchange 2010 SP3. There are some serious bumps in the road that you can come across when setting this up that may cause you to spend countless hours troubleshooting without any real success. I’ll elaborate on a couple of the problems that I’ve run into here, and follow up with the solution that worked for me with these issues at the end of the post.

AutoDiscover Failures and Free/Busy Issues

One of the things that you may run into after completing is AutoDiscover failures. You’ll know you have this problem when a cloud (or on-prem) user can log into OWA, but cannot set up their mailbox in Outlook or through Activesync. This can also present in an unusual fashion when you attempt to look up cross-premises Calendar information. Cross-premises calendar sharing utilizes the Exchange Federated Sharing features of Exchange, and this in turn utilizes Autodiscover to work properly. If you can’t view calendars in either direction (from On-Prem to Cloud or Cloud to On-Prem), and you get an error that the Free/Busy information couldn’t be read, look into Autodiscover first.

Generally, there isn’t a whole lot you can do to resolve Autodiscover errors, since Autodiscover is something that you have some pretty limited control over. Microsoft Recommends that the Autodiscover.company.com record that you publish in your Public DNS, so you shouldn’t have to change your Autodiscover record when introducing a Hybrid configuration. Unfortunately, there isn’t much more you can actually do once the Records are configured.

There is, however, a tool you can use to help you troubleshoot some issues with Autodiscover and Office 365 in a hybrid environment. Since Autodiscover is required for Free/Busy exchange to function, it may actually be possible to resolve your error by using Microsoft’s Free/Busy error troubleshooting tool. It’s available here: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2555008

If you aren’t experiencing Free/Busy errors, the tool may not be as handy, but I suggest trying to go through it a bit anyway, since it can give you some tips for resolving Autodiscover errors. If you have on-prem users that are having trouble configuring clients with autodiscover, tell the tool you have on-prem users that can’t see free-busy for Cloud users. If you have cloud users that are having trouble, do the opposite. If neither are working, use the other option available in the tool.

What Solved My Problem

Interestingly, it took me about 2 or 3 days of digging before I finally found the solution to my autodiscover and free/busy issues. It turned out that my problems were caused by some information that Microsoft failed to let anyone know about.

When you run the Hybrid Configuration tool, it will make some major changes to each of the CAS and HUB servers that you add as Hybrid Endpoints. However, because the hybrid configuration wizard actually makes these changes remotely and on demand, it does not actually complete the setup for you. Once you complete the Hybrid Configuration Wizard and add *any* CAS or HUB servers as hybrid endpoints (All your CAS and HUB servers should be hybrid endpoints for optimum functionality), *make sure to reboot those servers*. The changes that are made by the Hybrid Configuration wizard *will not* apply fully until the World Wide Web Publishing Services and IIS services are restarted. You can achieve the same goal by running IISRESET on your CAS/HUB servers like I did if you are in a situation where rebooting will create unnecessary downtime, but a full reset is a good idea.